Borlase found both the creep-hole and the long passage filled with earth, the creep-hole having been blocked at its upper end by a long stone, wedged in from above. The purpose of the niches at either side of the creep-hole at Carn Euny and the larger niche or aumbry in the wall of the circular chamber, facing the doorway, is not clear. Clark suggests p.
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At the eastern end of the fogou at Carn Euny is a thresh-hold stone, quite possibly a stumbling block intended to warn the inmates of the fogou of the approach of an unwary intruder. A similar stumbling trap is to be found at the entrance to a small side-chamber in the extensive complex at Halligey, Trelowarren, Mawgan-in-Meneag, where a' ridge of rock has been left in situ see Clark, p.
Finally, at the main entrance to. See W. Borlase, MS. Buryan, is an enigmatic figure carved in bas-relief, believed to represent a deity, probably not carved in situ but brought from some sacred grove. A number of unusual features at Boleigh in addition to the carved figure, strongly suggest that it was used for some religious purpose. Was the figure merely a symbol of a fertility cult to ensure a plentiful harvest or an object of veneration, the carved apse-like end of this fogou being dedicated as a shrine for the worship of a local deity represented by the carving?
This immediately provokes the question, ' might not the fogou at Cam Euny really be a pagan shrine? We have already noted the stumbling block which would warn worshippers of the approach of anyone not initiated into the mysteries performed within. The niche in the wall of the circular chamber the holy of holies? After all, the early seventh-century author of the Vita S. Sam- sonis c.
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Samson witnessed a scene of heathen worship in Tricuria Trigg on the Bodmin Moors, where the natives were worshipping an idol 3. Not only the presence of these puzzling features in the fogou but also the siting of the fogou in the vicinity of a celebrated holy well, which gives rise to a stream, strongly suggest that it was built as a shrine ; for wells, springs, streams and rivers were of. Henceforth quoted as Ross. Twist of St.
Anthony in Roseland, Cornwall. The Life of St. Samson of Dol, by T.
In Gaul particularly there are numerous examples of the association of divine beings with streams and rivers and with the springs at their source. The Celtic mother-goddesses, who frequently also function in the role of war-goddesses and prognosti- cators, have a wide-spread association with water, no doubt due to their obvious connexion with fertility, which, in the popular mind, could be likened to the life-giving powers of water which fertilizes the land 1.
A farming community such as the one known to have existed at Cam Euny almost certainly practised a form of worship which included some kind of fertility rites, possibly directed to a mother-goddess or, in view of the proximity to Caer Bran, to the Celtic deity Bran, in the role of water-deity attributed to him by a number of scholars who note that his name appears to be preserved in a number of river-names in Wales, particularly South Wales.
Not only the hill-fort of Caer Bran but also the nearby hamlet of Brane and Brane Farm are thought to owe their names to a cult of Bran. The question of the derivation of the place-names is complicated by the fact that the word bran as a common noun signifies ' raven ', but it should be borne in mind that for the Celts this was no ordinary bird. The raven was connected in Bronze and Iron Age Europe with an early solar cult and later on associated in both Gallo-Roman and Romano-British iconographie tradi- tion, and subsequently in Celtic literature, with war-fertility goddesses.
It was allegedly the possessor of prognostic powers.
Ganga's first Holi celebration by Sagar !
Throughout Celtic tradition birds figure as symbols of divinity and as servants and messengers to the gods, moreover, gods may manifest themselves in the form of birds, for which reason some scholars hold Bran to be a raven-deity. The most recent scholarly opinion is expressed rather more cautiously, to wit, that we. Ross, p. He was a leader of his people in battle or time of need, and was of gigantic proportions.
As lord of the Other World he presides over joyous feasts and the cult of his severed head reflects a deep-rooted Celtic cult of the head, supported by iconographical evidence and persistently associated with sacred springs and pools, the head being imbued with all the powers most admired and desired by the Celts — fertility, prophecy, hospitality, wisdom and healing.
The cult of the severed head was linked with the veneration of wells in a variety of ways, as, for instance, in the legend of St. Melor, who was decapitated by an assassin who set out to take the head to the saint's wicked uncle. Thus the magic powers of the sacred severed head created a holy well. Numerous healing springs are dedicated to St. Melor in Brittany, while his holy well at Linkinhorne in Cornwall is renowned.
In this way an ancient pagan tradition of a healing well could be preserved in a Christian context, for the worship of wells was not banned by the Christian Church but frequently converted to its own ends, so that the well could become the centre of the cult of the local saint rather than the local deity. Might this not be the case with the cult of St. Very little is known of the life of St. No Vita has apparently survived, so that our knowledge of him is limited to what we are told by William of Worcester, who wrote his Itinerary in : ' St. Vny, the brother of St.
Herygh, lies in the parish church of St. Vny, near the town of Lallant, on the northern sea. See P. He is traditionally associated with St. Hya, the patron saint of St. Ives who was his sister, and was one of a small band of immigrants from Ireland who sailed with St. Gwinear to Cornwall in the late fifth or early sixth century. He is patron of the parish church of Redruth and credited with having converted to Christianity the pagan chief who ruled on Cam Brea. He is supposed to have been martyred at Merther Uny, Wendron Parish. Both St. Euny and St. Hya were honoured in Brittany, particularly in two small parishes near Carhaix in the province of Cornouaille, St.
However, the main centre of his activities was undoubtedly in the parish of St. Euny Lelant on the Hayle estuary, at the northern end of the shorter land route that led across the peninsula to St. Michael's Mount and thence to France. Because of his association with the well at Chapel Euny and Cam Euny it is thought that he may have converted the inhabitants of that area to Christianity, persuading them to give up their pagan rites 1.
This might account for the deliberate blocking of the creep-hole and the long passage of the fogou at Cam Euny, which Borlase believed to have been blocked at ' a very early date '. All in all, it seems highly probable that the fogou was in fact a pagan shrine, but the evidence remains at present circumstantial. Let us now see whether there are any indications in the of Thomas's poem that the poet may have regarded the cave as a pagan shrine, and at the same time examine more the way in which the various adaptors of Thomas's text appear to have modified his original description of the cave as it is preserved in the Saga.
The succinct account of the Saga itself reveals little of the purpose of the cave beyond what we can deduce from the observation that pagan men had had it with great craftsmanship and fine workmanship, an which indicates that pagan men attached a high degree of importance to it, commensurate with a religious purpose. Beyond that, only the presence of a particularly fine tree upon. Might not the traditional tree of the locus amoenus have fused in the poet's imagination with the traditional attribute of a Celtic cult site?
We learn nothing of the origin and purpose of the cave from the rapid account in the Oxford Folie Tristan, an episodic poem composed in Anglo-Norman towards the end of the twelfth century, which in its allusions follows the sequence of events in Thomas's romance, and to which it bears a close textual The description reads as follows :.
A Saga: The Story of Ganga & Kave
E un mult bel liu i truvames : En une roche fu cavee ;. Dedenz fu voltisse e ben faite,. Tant bele cum se fust purtraite ;. Tant cum en bois nus surjurnames 2. Lines correspond closely to the description in the Saga, 1. However, the structure of the cave is not at all clear, the meaning of 1. Hoe- pffner, Strasbourg, , quoted here from the reprint, Paris, , p. Guide to Greece, ed. Hoepffner p. Moreover, according to Tobler-Lommatzsch Vol. II the noun cavee see chavee signifies ' Vertiefung ' or ' Hohlweg ', meaning ' a hollowing out or excavation ' and Hohlweg ' a sunken or hollow path'. If, as Kolb suggests art.
Hence it would seem that Hoepffner's assumption that cavee simply corresponds to fossiure and therefore means ' grotte ' or ' caverne ' is not. For further examples of the usage of caverne and fosse see Tobler- Lommatzsch, Altfrz. II and III. Tobler-Lommatzsch, op. In fact, the interpretation of this description is further bedevilled by the ambiguity of the noun roche, which has a multiplicity of related meanings, the most obvious being, of course, ' a rock '. Godefroy gives inter alia : ' maison, cave, caveau, souterrain ' ; and, more recently, Wartburg includes ' Fels ' rock , ' Stein ' stone , and, in a text of c.
This means that ' in a rock ' is not the only possible interpretation for the phrase ' en une roche ' 1. In brief, the evidence of the Oxford Folie is inconclusive and, although obviously derived from Thomas's text, it provides no clear pointers either to the function or the structure of his cave which appears at first glance to be a cavern in a rock, its face pierced by a narrow entrance cleft, but which may, upon closer inspection, equally well be seen as a souterrain.
See Godefroy, torn. Liste des illustrations Plan of the Fogou at Carn Euny [link]. It is on the assumption that Brother Robert was equally faithful to his source in his precise description of the strange ' cave ' to which the lovers withdraw in the forest that the following examination is based, in the belief that it may shed some light on Thomas's 1. The topographical features unmistakably belong to the convention of the Earthly Paradise, an 1.
HARRIS Otherworld region, frequently situated on top of a mountain or hill, which may be attained by a chosen few, only after an arduous journey through uncultivated country x. The waves breaking into the sea shore were enormous.
Sea with all its magnificence is so deceptive. The shops had opened, the tourists were enjoying their … Embryo of Faith - contd Not rated yet Back to page 1 of the short story Intervening into the altercation, Subramaniam tried to ease the mother-son duo. She tossed and turned in bed.